Estes & Tinker Lab at the Santa Cruz Field Station

A cooperative unit of United States Geological Survey and University of California, Santa Cruz

Recent Publications

Please check back soon for our lab's most recent publications. For lists of publications by researcher, please refer to their CVs, or Dr. Jim Estes Publications and Dr. Tim Tinker Publications.


Fujii, J.A., Ralls K, Tinker M.T. (In Press) Food abundance, prey morphology, and diet specialization influence individual sea otter tool-use. Behavioral Ecology

Ralls K, Rotzel McInerney N, Gagne RB, Ernest HB, Tinker MT, Fujii J, Maldonado J. 2017. Mitogenomes and relatedness do not predict frequency of tool use by sea otters.  Biology Letters13 (3), 20160880

Law, C.J., Baliga,V.B., Tinker, M.T. and Mehta, R.S. 2017. Asynchrony in craniomandibular development and growth in Enhydra lutris nereis (Carnivora: Mustelidae): are southern sea otters born to bite? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society

Tinker, M. T., J. Tomoleoni, N. LaRoche, L. Bowen, A. K. Miles, M. Murray, M. Staedler, and Z. Randell. 2017. Southern sea otter range expansion and habitat use in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. USGS Open File Report 2017-1001, Reston, VA.

Breed, G. A., E. A. Golson and M. T. Tinker. In press. Predicting animal home range structure and transitions using a multistate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck biased random walk. Ecology

Schott, K.C., Krusor, C., Tinker, M.T., Moore, J., Conrad, P.A., Shapiro, K., 2016. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). Journal of Parasitology, 143(13):1703-1712

Thometz, N.M., Staedler, M.M., Tomoleoni, J.A., Bodkin, J.L., Bentall, G.B., Tinker, M.T. 2016. Trade-offs between energy maximization and parental care in a central place forager, the sea otter. Behavioral Ecology, 27(5): 1552-1566

Novak, M., J.D. Yeakel, A.E. Noble, D.F. Doak, M. Emmerson, J.A. Estes, U. Jacob, M.T. Tinker and J.T. Wootton. In press. Characterizing species interactions to understand press perturbations: What is the community matrix? Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 47(1)

Estes, J.A., M. Heithaus, D. J. McCauley, D.B. Rasher, B. Worm. 2016. Megafaunal impacts on structure and function of ocean ecosystems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 41:83–116

Tinker, M.T., Staedler, M.M., Tarjan, L.M., Bental, G.B., Tomoleoni, J.A., and LaRoche, N.L., 2016, Geospatial data collected from tagged sea otters in central California, 1998-2012: U.S Geological Survey data release,

Estes, J.A. 2016. Serendipity: an ecologist’s quest to understand nature. University of California Press.

Tarjan, L.M., and M. T. Tinker. 2016. Permissible Home Range Estimation (PHRE) in Restricted Habitats: A New Algorithm and an Evaluation for Sea Otters. PLoS One

Chinn, S. M., M. A. Miller, M. T. Tinker, M. M. Staedler, F. I. Batac, E. M. Dodd, L. A. Henkel. 2016. The High Cost of Motherhood: End-Lactation Syndrome in Southern Sea Otters. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 52(2):307-318. doi: 10.7589/2015-06-158

Tinker, M.T., B. B. Hatfield, M. D. Harris, and J. A. Ames. 2015. Dramatic Increase in Sea Otter Mortality from White Sharks in California. Marine Mammal Science, 32(1): 309–326,

Estes, J.A., D.F. Doak, and A. Burdin. 2015. Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller sea cow. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 10.1073/pnas.1502552112

Krusor, C., W. A. Smith, M. T. Tinker, M. Silver, P. A. Conrad, and K. Shapiro. 2015. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems. Environmental Microbiology. 17(11):4527-37

Raimondi, P., L.J. Jurgens, and M.T. Tinker. 2015 Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone. Ecology 96: 3102-3108

Novak, M. and M.T. Tinker. 2015. Time-scales alter the inferred strength and temporal consistency of intraspecific diet specialization. Oecologia 178:61–74

Newsome, S.D., M.T. Tinker, V.A. Gill, Z.N. Hoyt, A. Doroff, L. Nichol, and J.L. Bodkin. 2015. The interaction of intraspecific competition and habitat on individual diet specialization: a near range-wide examination of sea otters. Oecologia, 178: 45-59

Smith, E.A.E., S.D. Newsome, J.A. Estes and M.T. Tinker. 2015. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters. Oecologia, 178:17-29

Fujii, J. A., K. Ralls, and M. T. Tinker. 2015. Ecological drivers of variation in tool-use frequency across sea otter populations. Behavioral Ecology, 26(2) 519-526

Stewart, N.A., B. Konar and M.T. Tinker. 2015. Testing the nutritional limitation and predator avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Oecologia, 177(3):645–655

Beas-Luna, R., M. Novak, M. H. Carr, M. T. Tinker, A. Black, J. E. Caselle, M. Hoban, D. Malone, and A. Iles. 2014. An online database for informing ecological network models: . PLoS ONE 9(10): e109356

Bowen, L., A. K. Miles, C. A. Kolden, J. A. Saarinen, J. L. Bodkin, M. J. Murray, and M. T. Tinker. 2014. Effects of wildfire on sea otter (Enhydra lutris) gene transcript profiles. Marine Mammal Science, 31(1):191–210

Lafferty, K.D. and Tinker, M.T. 2014. Sea otters are recolonizing southern California in fits and starts. Ecosphere (Ecological Society of America) 5:art50

Thometz, N. M, Tinker, M. T., Staedler, M.M., Mayer, K.A., and Williams, T.M. 2014. Energetic Demands of Immature Sea Otters from Birth to Weaning: Implications for maternal costs, reproductive behavior, and population level trends. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 2053-2061

Kenner, M. C., J. A. Estes, M. T. Tinker, J. L. Bodkin, R. K. Cowen, C. Harrold, B. B. Hatfield, M. Novak, A. Rassweiler, and D. C. Reed. (in press) A multi-decade time series of kelp forest community structure at San Nicolas Island, California. Ecology.

Stewart NL, Konar B, and Tinker MT. (in press). Testing the nutritional limitation and predator avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Oecologia.

Hughes, B. B., R. Eby, E. Van Dyke, M. T. Tinker, C. I. Marks, K. S. Johnson, and K. Wasson. 2013. Recovery of a top predator mediates negative eutrophic effects on seagrass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas.1302805110

Oates, S.C., Miller, M.A., Hardin, D., Conrad, P.A., Melli, A., Jessup, D.A., Dominik, C., Roug, A., Tinker, M.T., Miller, W.A. 2012. Prevalence, Environmental Loading, and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Domestic and Wild Animals along the Central California Coast. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 78(24): 8762–8772

Tinker M.T., Guimarães P.R., Novak M., Marquitti F.M.D., L. B.J., Staedler M., Bentall G. & J.A. Estes. 2012. Structure and mechanism of diet specialization: testing models of individual variation in resource use with sea otters. Ecology Letters 15(5) 475-483.

Bowen L., Miles A.K., Murray M., Haulena M., Tuttle J., Van Bonn W., Adams L., Bodkin J.L., Ballachey B., Estes J., Tinker M.T., Keister R. & Stott J.L. 2012. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health. Molecular Ecology Resources 12:67-74.

Kim SL, Tinker MT, Estes JA, Koch PL. 2012. Ontogenetic and Among-Individual Variation in Foraging Strategies of Northeast Pacific White Sharks Based on Stable Isotope Analysis. PLoS ONE 7(9): e45068. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045068

Newsome, Seth D., Justin D. Yeakel, Patrick V. Wheatley, M. Tim Tinker. 2012. Tools for quantifying isotopic niche space and dietary variation at the individual and population level. Journal of Mammalogy 93(2), 329-341.

Estes, J.A. J. Terborgh, J. S. Brashares, M.E. Power, J. Berger, W. J. Bond, S. R. Carpenter, T. Essington, R. D. Holt, J. B.C. Jackson, R. J. Marquis, L. Oksanen, T. Oksanen, R. T. Paine, E. K. Pikitch, W. J. Ripple, S. A. Sandin, M. Scheffer, T. W. Schoener, J. B. Shurin, A. R.E. Sinclair, M. E. Soulé, R. Virtanen, and D. A. Wardle. 2011. Trophic downgrading of planet earth. Science 333:301-306

Watson, J. and J.A. Estes. 2011. Stability, resilience, and phase shifts in kelp forest communities along the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Ecological Monographs 81:215-239.

Hatfield, B.B., J.A. Ames, J.A. Estes, M.T. Tinker, E.B. Johnson, M.M. Staedler, and M.D. Harris. 2011. Sea otter mortality in fish and shellfish traps: estimating potential impacts and exploring possible solutions. Endangered Species Research 13:219-229.

Novak, M., J.T. Wootton, D.F. Doak, M. Emmerson, J.A. Estes, and M.T. Tinker. 2011. Predicting community responses to perturbations in the face of imperfect knowledge and network complexity. Ecology 92:836-846.

Estes, J.A. 2010. The Aleutian archipelago: addressing the functional importance of carnivory through variation in space and time. Pp. 155-176 in. I. Billicks and M. Price (eds). The Ecology of Place. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Terborgh and J.A. Estes, eds. 2010. Trophic Cascades: Predators, Prey, and the Changing Dynamics of Nature. Island Press, Washington DC 464p.—PDF not available

Estes, J.A., C.H. Peterson, and R. Steneck. 2010.  Some effects of apex predators in higher-latitude coastal oceans. Pp. 37-53 in J. Terborgh and J.A. Estes, eds. Trophic Cascades: Predators, Prey, and the Changing Dynamics of Nature. Island Press, Washington DC 464p.—PDF not available

Harris, Heather S., Stori C. Oates, Michelle M. Staedler, M. Tim Tinker, David A. Jessup, James T. Harvey, and Melissa A. Miller. 2010. Behavior Associated with Forced Copulation of Juvenile Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) by Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Aquatic Mammals 36(4): 219-229.

Miller, Melissa A., Raphael M. Kudela, Abdu Mekebri, Dave Crane, Stori C. Oates, M. Timothy Tinker, Michelle Staedler, Woutrina A. Miller, Sharon Toy-Choutka, Clare Dominik, Dane Hardin, Gregg Langlois, Michael Murray, Kim Ward, David A. Jessup. 2010. Evidence for a Novel Marine Harmful Algal Bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) Transfer from Land to Sea Otters. PLoS ONE 5(9):e12576.

Conrad, P. A., E. VanWormer, K. Shapiro, M. Miller, C. Kreuder-Johnson, T. Tinker, M. Grigg, J. Largier, T. Carpenter, and J. K. Mazet. 2009. Tracking toxoplasma gondii from land to sea. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81:198-198.

Jessup, D.A., C. Kreuder-Johnson, J.A. Estes, D. Carlson-Bremer, W.M. Jarmin, S. Reese, E. Dodd, M.T. Tinker, and M.H. Ziccardi. 2010. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris sp.) in Alaska and California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46(4):1-20.

Newsome, S.D., G.B. Bentall, M.T. Tinker, O.T. Oftedal, K. Ralls, M.L. Fogel, and J.A. Estes. 2010. Variation in δ13C and δ15N diet-vibrissae trophic discrimination factors in a wild population of California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Ecological Applications 20:744-752.

Estes, J.A., M.T. Tinker, and J.L. Bodkin. 2010. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: Sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian Archipelago. Conservation Biology 24(3): 852-860

Estes, J.A., D.F. Doak, A.M. Springer, and T.M. Williams. 2009. Causes and consequences of marine mammal population declines in southwest Alaska: a food web perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 364:1647-1658.

Estes, J.A., D.F. Doak, A.M. Springer, T.M. Williams, and G.B. van Vliet. 2009. Trend data do support the sequential nature of pinniped and sea otter declines in the North Pacific, but does it really matter? Marine Mammal Science 25:748-754.

Miles, A.K., M.A. Ricca, R.G. Anthony, and J.A. Estes. 2009. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28:1643-1654.

Estes, J.A., J. L. Bodkin, and M. Ben-David. Marine Otters. 2009. Pp. 807-816 in W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig and J.G.M. Thewissen (eds.). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Elsivier, Amsterdam.—PDF not available

Estes, J.A. 2009. Ecological Effects of Marine Mammals. Pp. 357-361 in W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig and J.G.M. Thewissen (eds.). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Elsivier, Amsterdam.—PDF not available

Tinker, M. T., M. Mangel, and J. A. Estes. 2009 Learning to be different: acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence and environmental variation can cause behaviorally-mediated foraging specializations. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 11: 841-869.

Edwards, M. S., and M. T. Tinker. 2009. Monitoring Benthic Algal Communities: A Comparison of Targeted and Coefficient Sampling Methods. Algae 24 :1-10.

Newsome, S.D., M.T. Tinker, D.H. Monson, O.T. Oftedal, K. Ralls, M. Staedler, M.L. Fogel, and J.A. Estes. 2009. Using stable isotopes to investigate individual diet specialization in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Ecology 90: 961-974.

Johnson, C.K., Tinker, M.T., Estes, J.A., Conrad, P.A., Staedler, M., Miller, M.A., Jessup, D.A. and Mazet, J.A.K. 2009. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(7):2242-2247.

Estes, J.A. 2008. Kelp forest food webs in the Aleutian archipelago. Pp. 29-49 In, T. R. McClahanan and G.M. Branch (eds.) Food webs and the dynamics of marine reefs. Oxford University Press, New York.—PDF not available

Anthony, R.G.,  J.A. Estes, M. A. Ricca, A. K. Miles, and E. D. Forsman. 2008. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades. Ecology 89:2725-2735

Tinker, M. T., D. F. Doak, and J. A. Estes. 2008. Using demography and movement behavior to predict range expansion of the southern sea otter. Ecological Applications 18(7) 1781-1794.

Peckham, S.H., D. Maldonado Diaz, V. Koch, A. Mancini, A. Gaos, M. T. Tinker, W.J. Nichols. 2008. High mortality of loggerhead turtles due to bycatch, human consumption and strandings at Baja California Sur, Mexico, 2003 to 2007. Endangered Species Research 5(2-3).

Tinker, M.T., Bentall, G.B., and J.A. Estes. 2008. Food limitation leads to behavioral diversification and dietary specialization in sea otters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(2):560-565.

Doak, D.F., J.A. Estes, B.S. Halpern, U. Jacob, D.R. Lindberg, J.R. Lovvorn, D.H. Monson, M.T. Tinker, et al. 2008. Understanding and predicting ecological dynamics: are major surprises inevitable? Ecology 89:952-961.

Estes, J.A. 2007. Sea otter. pp. 503-506 In, M.W. Denny and S.D. Gaines (eds.). Encyclopedia of Tidepools. University of California Press, Berkeley. –PDF not available

Halfar, J., R. Steneck, B. Schöne, G.W.K. Moore, M. Joachimski, A. Kronz, J. Fietzke, and J. Estes. 2007. Coralline alga reveals first marine record of subarctic North Pacific climate change. Geophysical Research Letters 34:7702-7707.—PDF not available

Jessup, D.A., M.A. Miller, C. Kreuder-Johnson, P. Conrad, M.T. Tinker, J.A. Estes and J.A.K. Mazet. 2007. One Health, One Medicine: Sea Otters in a Dirty Ocean. Journal of the American
Veterinary Medical Association 231(11): 1648-1652

Tinker, M.T., D.P. Costa, J.A. Estes and N. Wieringa. 2007. Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: using archival time-depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies. Deep Sea Research II 54:330-342

Erlandson, J.M., M.H. Graham, B.J. Borque, D. Corbett, J.A. Estes, and R.S. Steneck. 2007. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas. Journal of Coastal and Island Archaeology 2:161-174.

Tinker, M.T., D.F. Doak, J.A. Estes, B.B. Hatfield, M.M. Staedler, and J.L. Bodkin. 2006. Incorporating diverse data and realistic complexity into demographic estimation procedures: a case study using the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis. Ecological Applications 16:2293-2312.

Laidre, K.L., J.A. Estes, M.T. Tinker, J. Bodkin, D. Monson and K. Schneider. 2006. Patterns of growth and body condition in sea otters from the Aleutian archipelago before and after the recent population decline. Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 978 989.

Edwards, M.S. and J.A. Estes. 2006. Catastrophe, recovery and range limitation in Northeast Pacific kelp forests: a large-scale perspective. Marine Ecology Progress Series 320:79-87.

Donlan, C.J., J. Berger, C.E. Brock, J.H. Brock, D.A. Burney, J.A. Estes, D. Foreman, P.S. Martin, G.W. Roemer, F.A. Smith, M.E. Soulé, and H.W. Greene. 2006. Pleistocene rewilding: an optimistic vision for 21st Century conservation. American Naturalist 168:660-681

Croll, D.A., J.L. Maron, J.A. Estes, E.M. Danner, and G.V. Byrd. 2005. Introduced predators transform subarctic islands from grassland to tundra. Science 307:1959-1961.

Reisewitz, S.E., J.A. Estes, and S.A. Simenstad. 2005. Indirect food web interactions: sea otters and kelp forest fishes in the Aleutian archipelago. Oecologia 146: 623-631.

Estes, J.A., D.R. Lindberg, and C. Wray. 2005. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): patterns and implications. Paleobiology 31:591-606.

Maron, J.L., J.A. Estes, D.A. Croll, E.M. Danner, S.C. Elmendorf, and S.L. Buckelew. 2006. An introduced predator alters Aleutian Island plant communities by thwarting nutrient subsidies. Ecological Monographs 76:3-24.

Estes, J.A., M.T. Tinker, A.M. Doroff and D.M. Burn. 2005. Continuing sea otter population declines in the Aleutian Archipelego. Marine Mammal Science 21:169–172.

Gerber, L.R., M.T. Tinker, J.A. Estes, D.F. Doak and D. Jessup. 2004. Mortality sensitivity in life-stage simulation analysis: A case study of southern sea otters. Ecological Applications 14:1554–1565.

Estes, J.A., E.M. Danner, D.F. Doak, B. Konar, A.M. Springer, P.D. Steinberg, M.T. Tinker, and T.M. Williams. 2003. Complex trophic interactions in kelp forest ecosystems. Bulletin of Marine Science, 74: 621-638.

Burn, D.M., A.M. Doroff and M.T. Tinker. 2003. Carrying Capacity and pre-decline abundance of sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in the Aleutian Islands. Northwestern Naturalist 84(3): 145-148

Doroff, A.M., J.A. Estes, M.T. Tinker, D.M. Burn and T.J. Evans. 2003. Sea otter population declines in the Aleutian Archipelago. Journal of Mammalogy, 84(1): 55-64

Estes, J.A., M.L. Riedman, M.M. Staedler, M.T. Tinker, B.E. Lyon. 2003. Individual variation in prey selection by sea otters: patterns, causes, and implications. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72(1): 144-155

Estes, J.A., M.T. Tinker, T.M. Williams, D.F. Doak. 1998. Killer whale predation on sea otters links oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282: 473-476

Hatfield, B.H., D. Marks, M.T. Tinker, K. Nolan, J. Pierce. 1998. Attacks on sea otters by killer whales. Marine Mammal Science 14(4): 888-894.

Estes, J.A., D.F. Doak, J.R. Bodkin, R.J. Jameson, D. Monson, J. Watt, M.T. Tinker. 1996. Comparative Demography of Sea Otter Populations. Endangered Species Update 13(12): 11-13

Watt, J.P., B.T. Krausse, M.T. Tinker. 1995. Bald Eagles kleptoparasitizing sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska. Condor 97(2): 588-590

Tinker, M.T., K.M. Kovacs, M.O. Hammill. 1995. Behavior and energetics of male gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) breeding on landfast ice. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 36:159-170

Professional Technical Reports:

Tinker, M. T., et al., 2013. “Sea Otter Population Biology at Big Sur and Monterey California: Investigating the Consequences of Resource Abundance and Anthropogenic Stressors for Sea Otter Recovery”. Final Report to California Coastal Conservancy and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. University of California Santa Cruz, CA. 242 pages

Estes, J.A. The Aleutian archipelago: addressing the functional importance of carnivory through variation in space and time. In. I. Billicks and M. Price (eds). The Ecology of Place. University of Chicago Press (2010).—PDF not available

Watson, J. and J.A. Estes. Stability, resilience, and phase shifts in kelp forest communities along the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Ecological Monographs.

Estes, J.A., J.L. Bodkin and M.T. Tinker. 2010. “Threatened southwest Alaska sea otter stock: delineating the causes and constraints to recovery of a keystone predator in the North Pacific Ocean”. NPRB Project 717 Final Report

Oftedal, O., K. Ralls, M.T. Tinker and A. Green. 2007. Nutritional constraints on the southern sea otter in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and a comparison to sea otter populations at San Nicolas Island, California and Glacier Bay, Alaska. Final Report to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary and the Marine Mammal Commission.

Tinker, M. T., J. A. Estes, K. Ralls, T. M. Williams, D. Jessup, and D. P. Costa. 2006. Population Dynamics and Biology of the California Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) at the Southern End of its Range. MMS OCS Study DRAFT REPORT. Page 351. MMS Cooperative Agreement Number 14-35-0001-31063. Coastal Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California.

Tinker, M.T., Estes, J.A., Doak, D.F. 2000. Development of a spatially explicit population model to assess potential population impacts associated with translocation of sea otters from south of Pt. Conception. Final Report for Friends of the Sea Otter, October, 2000. Monterey, California.

Estes, J.A., Konar, B., Tinker, M.T. 1998. Sea Otter Population Biology and Subtidal Community Ecology at Shemya Island, Alaska. Final Report for Department of Defense Legacy Project Number 9401280 & 9510014

Tinker, M.T., Estes, J.A. 1997. Summary Report on Sea Otter Captures for Blood Contaminant Analysis and Collection of Population Data in the Western Aleutian Islands, 1997. Summary Report to the Navy, U.C. Santa Cruz, CA.

Tinker, M.T., Heaven, P.C., Ingham, L. 1997. Columbia Basin, Large Mammal Monitoring: 1994-97 Aerial Surveys, Final Report. Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program, Technical Report

Tinker, M.T., Estes, J.A. 1996. The population ecology of sea otters at Adak Island, Alaska. Final Report to the Navy, Contract # N68711-94-LT-4026, U.C. Santa Cruz, CA.



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